Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

S.N Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
1. An organized nucleus is absent. An organized nucleus is present.
2. Nucleus is represented by packed mass of DNA fibres, which lacks nuclear membrane and nucleoli. It contains chromatin network, nuclear membrane and nucleoli.
3. DNA is naked i.e. it lacks protein association. DNA is covered with histone proteins to form chromosome.
4. Usually unicellular. Usually multicellular.
5. Peptidoglycan makes the cell wall. Peptidoglycan is absent but cellulose is present.
6. Size of the cell is 1-5 micron. Size of cell is 10-100 micron.
7. Sterols absent except in Mycoplasma. Sterols present.
8. Mitotic division is absent. Mitotic division is present.
9. Only one chromosome. More than one chromosome.
10. Ribosome is of 70s type. Ribosome is of 80s type.
11. It occurs only in lower organisms such as bacteria and blue green algae. It occurs in all living organisms except bacteria and blue green algae.
12. It has single envelope system. It has double envelope system.
13. All membrane bound cell organelles are absent. All membrane bound cell organelles are present.
14. Mesosomes are the site of respiration. Mitochondria form the site of respiration.
15. Cyclosis movement of protoplasm is not observed. The cyclosis movement is observed.
16. Metabolism is aerobic or anaerobic i.e. diverse. Metabolism is mostly aerobic.
17. Almost all have cell walls. Only fungi and plants have cell wall.
18. Cytoskeleton absent. Cytoskeleton present.
19. Reproduction is always asexual. Reproduction is asexual or sexual
20. DNA is circular. DNA is linear.
21. Introns are commonly absent. Introns are quite common.
22. Splicing is not required. Splicing occurs.
23. Plasmids may occur. Plasmids are rare.
24. Lysosomes, sphaerosomes, glyoxysomes are absent. They are often present.
25. Microtubules and microfilaments are rare. They are usually present.
26. Centrosome is absent. Centrosome is present.
27. Endocytosis and exocytosis are absent. They are present.
28. Pili and fimbriae are present. They are absent.
29. Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm. Transcription occurs inside the nucleus.
30. Flagella are smaller. Flagella longer.
31. A distinction in axoneme and sheath is absent in flagella. They are present in flagella.
32. Golgi apparatus is absent. Golgi apparatus is present.
33. Mitochondria absent. Mitochondria are present.
34. Duration of cell cycle is short (20-60 minutes). Duration is long (12-24 hours).
35. Permeability of nuclear membrane absent. It is selective.
36. Gas vacuoles can be present. Gas vacuole is absent.
37. Zygote is merozygotic (partially diploid). Zygote is diploid.
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Nitrogen fixation is possible.

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Nitrogen fixation is not possible.

 

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Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

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